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Wave 1: Phase Velocity = Group Velocity
Wave 2: Phase Velocity <> Group Velocity (same direction)
Wave 3: Phase Velocity <> Group Velocity (opposite direction)
Wave 4: Phase Velocity = 0
Wave 5: Group Velocity = 0
For waves 2-5, a reference phase range is marked in red, while groups are shown in alternating colors. Observe how they move relative to the vertical lines.